What’s the Raw Material of Textile Fabrics?
As we all know,the material of textile fabrics is yarn. So how many types of yarn are there?Here we will talk about different types of yarn from two aspects.
The material of yarn is fiber. According to different fibers,we can divide the yarn into two types:Natural fiber&Chemical fiber.Natural fiber mainly include 4 types:Cotton;Wool;Silk;Linen. And chemical fiber mainly include two types:Synthetic fiber&Regenerated fiber. The common synthetic fibers are Polyester;
Polyamide(Nylon);Polyurathan(Spandex/Lycra);Polypropylene;Vinylon(PolyVinyl);PBT;PTT etc. The common regenerated fibers are model,lyocell etc. Generally speaking, the price of natural fiber is higher than chemical fiber.
Note:To simplify the description,every fiber has shorthand. Natural fiber:C:Cotton;W:Wool;S:Silk;L:Linen. Chemical fiber:T:Polyester;N:Nylon;A:Acrylic;Ly:Lycra;Tel:Tencel;Md:Model. Here is a table for your reference.
- Process:Which Process to Span the Yarn?
According to the process,we can divide the yarn into FDY(Full Drawn Yarn),DTY(Drawn Texture Yarn),ATY(Air Textured Yarn),POY(Pre-Oriented Yarn) etc. Here is table of different filament yarn and spun yarn(staple yarn).
Abbreviation Full Name f filament DY Drawn Yarn FDY Full Drawn Yarn POY Pre-Oriented Yarn SILKOOL Silkool WD Warp Drawn TY Textured Yarn HDIY Heavy Denier Industrial Yarn SDTY Spinning Drawn Textured Yarn WDS Warp Drawn Sizing m Monofilament DW Drawn Winding LOY Low Oriented Yarn DTY Drawn Textured Yarn LDIY Light Denier Industrial Yarn MOY Middle Oriented Yarn HOY High Oriented Yarn SDY Spun Drawn Yarn DT Drawn Twist ATY Air Textured Yarn HWM High Wet Modulus Polynosic Polynosic PSF Polyester Staple Fiber
Usually, we can express yarn count according to its length or weight. According to the length,we use Denier,dtex or tex to express yarn count. According to the weight, we use Nm(1 gram of yarn in meters) for Metric count. And we use S(1 pound yarn length corresponds to multiples of 840 yards) for Imperial count.
Note: 1 pound = 454 grams, 1 yard = 0.9144 meters, 1 inch = 2.54 centimeters, 1 ounce = 28.35 grams
Note: Yarn matting agent TiO2, gloss and yarn cross-sectional shape (D, FD, SD, S, B, RB, TB, Y)
How Many Types of Textile Fabrics?
According to the way of weaving,there are mainly three types of fabrics:knitting fabrics,woven fabrics and non-woven fabrics.
In detail,knitting fabrics include warp knitting fabrics and weft knitting fabrics. Warp knitting fabric is not easy to tear while weft knitting fabric is easy to tear. In other words,we can extract the side yarns one by one from the loop head of the weft knitting fabric. But warp knitting fabric cannot.
Among the three types fabric,knitting fabric is most common and most widely in use. And from the above paragraph we have known that knitting fabric mainly include warp knitting fabric and weft knitting fabric. So what are the warp knitting fabrics and weft knitting fabrics in detail?
Note: We also call two way stretch fabric as four way stretch fabric. For example, swimwear fabrics are always 4 way stretch fabrics.
According to style and content,knitting fabric include three types:Jacquard and Mini jacquard,Mesh fabric and Plain fabric,Spandex stretch fabric and Non-stretch fabric.
What are the Intrinsic Quality Parameters of Fabrics?
We will talk about intrinsic quality parameters of fabrics from four aspects:specification and function,feel and color difference,color fastness,performance. And these are what we consider when qualifying fabrics.
This part include four points:Weight;Width;Content;Special processing(after finish). The first three points belong to specification of fabrics,the last one belongs to function.
Color fastness refers to the adhesion fastness of dyes to fibers after dyeing. Different test evaluation methods are used for different usage scenarios. Different countries and regions often use different test evaluation methods due to different usage habits. Such as the following common methods:
Elongation:The degree to which a certain length of the original can be pulled apart under the action of a certain force. Commonly expressed as elongation or stretch ratio.
Recovery:The degree of natural recovery after the sample is released several times after being pulled apart. Commonly expressed as recovery rate or residual deformation rate.
Modulus:The force required to stretch to a certain percentage as is. It is expressed in force value, and also in terms of modulus.
What are the Appearance Quality Parameters of Fabrics?
Appearance quality parameters include two key points:Qulifying fabrics according to International 4-point Inspection System;checking if fabrics have common defects.
International 4-point Inspection System:
1. The size of the defect is measured according to the diameter of the largest outer circle of the defect, and then scored according to the following categories.
The defect is 3 inches or less, 1 point
The defect is more than 3 inches and reaches 6 inches, 2 points
The defects are more than 6 inches to 9 inches, 3 points
4 points for defects over 9 inches to within 1 yard
2. Continuous defects, four points per yard
3. Larger defects (with holes, etc.) are not counted in size and four points per yard.
4. Rungs, mid-edge color, no color matching, insufficient width, different width, wrinkle, poor finishing, etc., when they occur continuously, each yard will be counted as four points.
5. The size and number of no defects in the same yard are rated up to 4 points.
Total score × 36 × 100 / (yardage × effective range (inch)) = the score of the cloth = 100 square yards deduction points
(Based on 100 square yards) Applicable to Europe, the United States, Japan and other countries. Within 20-28 points is normal. Strictly according to 20 points.